Housing Adequacy:  The indicator for housing adequacy is the dwelling condition, which refers to whether the dwelling is in need of major repairs. This includes dwellings with defective plumbing or electrical wiring, and those needing structural repairs to walls, floors, or ceilings. It does not include desirable remodelling or additions.

Housing Affordability:  The indicator of housing affordability is the proportion of total household income that is spent on shelter costs, also referred to as the “shelter-cost-to-income ratio.” Housing is considered unaffordable for households that spend 30 per cent or more of their total average monthly income on shelter costs.

Housing Suitability:  The indicator for housing suitability, also known as “crowding,” refers to whether the dwelling has enough bedrooms for the size and composition of the household. This is an index that is calculated using the National Occupancy Standard for Canada.


2006 Dashboard Data:  Statistics Canada. 2006. Census of Population. Custom tabulations.

2016 Dashboard Data:  Statistics Canada. 2016. Census of Population. Custom tabulations.

Definitions:  Statistics Canada. 2017 (updated). Dictionary, Census of Population, 2016. Website.

Data Type
Data Type

Sustainable Development Goals

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11. Make cities inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable
11. Make cities inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable

11. Make cities inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable

Cities are hubs for ideas, commerce, culture, science, productivity, social development and much more. At their best, cities have enabled people to advance socially and economically.

However, many challenges exist to maintaining cities in a way that continues to create jobs and prosperity while not straining land and resources. Common urban challenges include congestion, lack of funds to provide basic services, a shortage of adequate housing and declining infrastructure.

The challenges cities face can be overcome in ways that allow them to continue to thrive and grow, while improving resource use and reducing pollution and poverty. The future we want includes cities of opportunities for all, with access to basic services, energy, housing, transportation and more.

Related Individuals Living in a Home that Does Not Meet Housing Standards Targets


By 2030, ensure access for all to adequate, safe and affordable housing and basic services and upgrade slums


By 2030, provide access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems for all, improving road safety, notably by expanding public transport, with special attention to the needs of those in vulnerable situations, women, children, persons with disabilities and older persons


By 2030, enhance inclusive and sustainable urbanization and capacity for participatory, integrated and sustainable human settlement planning and management in all countries